The Court concludes that Defendants’ motion to dismiss is due to be granted as to this claim. Plaintiff failed to identify the legal basis for its trademark infringement claim, and therefore it is not sufficient to give Defendants fair notice of what the claim is and the grounds upon which it rests. Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555. Nevertheless, Savtira Delaware’s trademark infringement claim shall be dismissed without prejudice, and Savtira Delaware shall have leave to amend this claim.
[T]he Eleventh Circuit has adopted the “incorporation by reference” doctrine, under which the district court may take judicial notice of certain facts without converting the motion to dismiss into one for summary judgment, if the attached document is (1) central to the plaintiff’s claim and (2) undisputed. Horsley v. Feldt, 304 F.3d 1125, 1134 (11th Cir. 2002); see also Universal Express, 177 Fed. Appx. at 53 (citing Bryant v. Avado Brands, Inc., 187 F.3d 1271, 1278 (11th Cir. 1999)). Public records, including administrative agency records, are documents that may be incorporated by reference. Universal Express, 177 Fed. Appx. at 53 (citing Bryant, 187 F.3d at 1278). Because records from the United States Patent and Trademark Office are (1) central to Plaintiff’s claims of trademark infringement and unfair competition and (2) a public record that Plaintiff has not disputed, the Court may consider the records in resolving a motion to dismiss. See Horsley, 304 F.3d at 1134 (11th Cir. 2002).
To state a claim under 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a), a plaintiff must plead facts that demonstrate (1) that it had prior rights to its mark or name and (2) that the other party had adopted a mark or name that was the same, or confusingly similar to its mark, such that consumers were likely to confuse the two. Lone Star Steakhouse & Saloon, Inc. v. Longhorn Steaks, Inc., 106 F.3d 355, 358 (11th Cir. 1997). To satisfy the first element of trademark infringement under Section 43 of the Lanham Act, proof of a valid trademark, a plaintiff need not have a registered mark. Tana v. Dantanna’s, 611 F.3d 767, 773 (11th Cir. 2010). Ownership of a mark under the Lanham Act is determined by use, and registration does not necessarily create ownership. Compton v. Fifth Ave. Ass’n, Inc., 7 F. Supp. 2d 1328, 1331 (M.D. Fla. 1998); see also In re Wrubleski, 380 B.R. 635, 639 (Bankr. S.D. Fla. 2008) (“The party that first uses a mark, develops common law trademark rights that are, or may be, superior to the rights acquired by a later registrant of the mark.” (quoting Goldberg v. Cuzcatlan Bevs., Inc., 260 B.R. 48, 53 (Bankr. S.D. Fla. 2001))).